Telephone misuse indicator

When the phone line is in idle condition (on hook), the full voltage of 48V DC from the exchange appears across the line. When the phone is engaged by lifting the hand set, the voltage across the line falls down to around 12V. Thus, under idle condition (48V), VR1 is adjusted to give a positive biasing voltage to the base of Q3. As Q3 conducts Q1 gets into reverse bias and stops conduction. If the phone is engaged, Q3 stops conducting due to voltage drop across the lines, and subsequently, Q1 and Q2 starts oscillating and beeping is heard. Thus, this circuit can be used as an indicator for telephone tapping and misuse by an unauthorized person.

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How to use a relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches.

The relay’s switch connections are usually labeled COM(POLE), NC and NO:

COM/POLE= Common, NC and NO always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch.

NC = Normally Closed, COM/POLE is connected to this when the relay coil is not magnetized.

NO = Normally Open, COM/POLE is connected to this when the relay coil is MAGNETIZED and vice versa.

A relay shown in the picture is an electromagnetic or mechanical relay.

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OR-gate realization

To make an object counter we can use a simple dark detector circuit and a normal calculator. Pole and NO (Normally Open) terminals of a relay have to be connected to the two pins which are used to activate ‘=’ key of calculator.
As we block the light falling on LDR, the calculator starts counting.
For the calculator to work as a counter, we first need to press ‘1’ and ‘+’ keys.

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Object counter using LDR and calculator

To make an object counter we can use a simple dark detector circuit and a normal calculator. Pole and NO (Normally Open) terminals of a relay have to be connected to the two pins which are used to activate ‘=’ key of calculator.
As we block the light falling on LDR, the calculator starts counting.
For the calculator to work as a counter, we first need to press ‘1’ and ‘+’ keys.

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Water Level Indicator

We can use the logic of making an automatic light detector to make a simple water level indicator.We just need to remove LDR from the circuit and put the wires into water, then it simply works as water level indicator. There is a specific resistance between the wires that are dipped into water and conduction of electricity through water gives biasing voltage to base of transistor.

The sensitivity can be adjusted using VR1. Put 470K variable resistance in VR1.

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Mode of NE555- Monostable

Monostable mode of operation

Monostable mode of operation of 555 IC can be explained using a simple touch sensitive circuit. Here, timing constant (T) of monostable timer= 1.1*R1*C1. The following circuit has been configured in monostable mode. A monostable circuit produces a single pulse(for a certain duration determined by the Timing Constant(T)=1.1*R1*C1) when triggered at pin 2.

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Voltage Divider Rule

A Voltage divider consists of two resistances R1 and R2 connected in series across a supply Voltage Vs. The supply Voltage is divided up between the two resistances to give an output Voltage Vo which is the Voltage across R2. This depends on the value of R2 relative to R1:

If R2 is much smaller than R1, Vo is small (low, almost 0V)
(because most of the Voltage is across R1)
If R2 is about the same as R1, Vo is about half Vs
(because the Voltage is shared about equally between R1 and R2)
If R2 is much larger than R1, Vo is large (high, almost Vs)
(because most of the Voltage is across R2)

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Building a circuit on a breadboard

A breadboard is a device for testing temporary electronics projects. Components used to test a circuit can be reused for other projects. None of the components are damaged.

Almost all people start to learn electronics using breadboard because it is the simplest way of making circuit. The photograph shows a typical small breadboard which is suitable for beginners building simple circuits with one or two ICs (chips).

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