October 23, 2021

## Water Level Indicator

We can use the logic of making an automatic light detector to make a simple water level indicator.We just need to remove LDR from the circuit and put the wires into water, then it simply works as water level indicator. There is a specific resistance between the wires that are dipped into water and conduction of electricity through water gives biasing voltage to base of transistor.

The sensitivity can be adjusted using VR1. Put 470K variable resistance in VR1.

## Multivibrator

A multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a variety of simple two-state systems such as light
emitting diodes, timers and flip-flops.

## Remote Tester

Remote tester circuit also resembles the logic of a “dark sensor (using BC557)”. LDR has been replaced with IR sensor TSOP 1738. The circuit works as a remote tester. Pressing a remote control switch near the IR sensor, switches on the LED D2.

## Toggle switch

This 555 timer circuit below toggles the LED when a button is pressed. Pins 2 and 6, the threshold and trigger inputs, are held at 1/2 the supply voltage by the two 10K resistors.

## Sound generator using 555

Circuit given below is configured on astable mode of operation. In place of a fixed resistance, LDR has been kept for getting variable resistance for the 555 timer to work in astable mode.

## Mode of NE555- Astable

This circuit has been configured in Astable mode. The output pulses are determined by the values of resistors R1, R2 and the timing capacitor C1. The formula for the frequency of pulses is: f= 1.44/[(R1+2R2)*C1].

The high and low time of each pulse can also be calculated.

## Mode of NE555- Monostable

Monostable mode of operation

Monostable mode of operation of 555 IC can be explained using a simple touch sensitive circuit. Here, timing constant (T) of monostable timer= 1.1*R1*C1. The following circuit has been configured in monostable mode. A monostable circuit produces a single pulse(for a certain duration determined by the Timing Constant(T)=1.1*R1*C1) when triggered at pin 2.

## Voltage Divider Rule

A Voltage divider consists of two resistances R1 and R2 connected in series across a supply Voltage Vs. The supply Voltage is divided up between the two resistances to give an output Voltage Vo which is the Voltage across R2. This depends on the value of R2 relative to R1:

If R2 is much smaller than R1, Vo is small (low, almost 0V)
(because most of the Voltage is across R1)
If R2 is about the same as R1, Vo is about half Vs
(because the Voltage is shared about equally between R1 and R2)
If R2 is much larger than R1, Vo is large (high, almost Vs)
(because most of the Voltage is across R2)

## Building a circuit on a breadboard

A breadboard is a device for testing temporary electronics projects. Components used to test a circuit can be reused for other projects. None of the components are damaged.

Almost all people start to learn electronics using breadboard because it is the simplest way of making circuit. The photograph shows a typical small breadboard which is suitable for beginners building simple circuits with one or two ICs (chips).

## Dark/Light sensor using transistor

Automatic Light detector using variable resistor

A light detector senses light. As the light level increases and LDR meets the lowest threshold resistance, the circuit automatically turns on the LED D1. We can adjust the sensitivity using the preset VR1-10K.

LESS RESISTANCE(VR1)-> LESS DARKNESS TO SWITCH OFF THE LED

HIGH RESISTANCE(VR1)-> MORE DARKNESS TO SWITCH OFF THE LED