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Water Level Indicator

We can use the logic of making an automatic light detector to make a simple water level indicator.We just need to remove LDR from the circuit and put the wires into water, then it simply works as water level indicator. There is a specific resistance between the wires that are dipped into water and conduction of electricity through water gives biasing voltage to base of transistor.

The sensitivity can be adjusted using VR1. Put 470K variable resistance in VR1.

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Mode of NE555- Monostable

Monostable mode of operation

Monostable mode of operation of 555 IC can be explained using a simple touch sensitive circuit. Here, timing constant (T) of monostable timer= 1.1*R1*C1. The following circuit has been configured in monostable mode. A monostable circuit produces a single pulse(for a certain duration determined by the Timing Constant(T)=1.1*R1*C1) when triggered at pin 2.

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Building a circuit on a breadboard

A breadboard is a device for testing temporary electronics projects. Components used to test a circuit can be reused for other projects. None of the components are damaged.

Almost all people start to learn electronics using breadboard because it is the simplest way of making circuit. The photograph shows a typical small breadboard which is suitable for beginners building simple circuits with one or two ICs (chips).

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